Bronchitis. Causes. Treatment with Septrin forte
Effectively treated acute bronchitis most often goes away without consequences.
Chronic bronchitis (CB) is a progressive disease of the tracheobronchial tissue, c
haracterized by remissions and exacerbations. During exacerbations, the bronchi become inflamed and there is coughing and profuse sputum production. Persistent inflammatory processes lead to damage to the structure of the mucous membranes of these organs and reduce their protective and cleansing function. Pulmonary tissue may also be involved. CHB is the most common chronic respiratory disease.
For treatment of bronchopulmonary disease, you need to see a pulmonologist or a general practitioner and take Septrin forte.
Causes of bronchitis
The bronchi is a paired organ, which is a branched tree whose “branches” go into the lungs. Its main function is to transport oxygen from the trachea to the alveoli of the lungs during inhalation and to remove carbon dioxide from them during exhalation.
The second function is to purify the air and protect the body from infections and foreign particles (dust, soot, etc.) that enter the airways with the air. This is facilitated by the structure of the epithelium that covers the inner walls of the bronchial tree. Such epithelium is called ciliated epithelium, because its structure includes cilia that move synchronously in one direction. The cilia are constantly oscillating, pushing foreign agents outward together with the flow of mucus, which is normally present in the bronchial tubes. In addition to its transport function, mucus also has antimicrobial and antiviral effects. The content of immunoglobulin A, which destroys bacteria and viruses, in mucus is ten times higher than in blood! How well mucus will perform its protective properties also depends on its rheological properties (fluidity).
After air passes through the trachea and bronchi, it reaches the alveoli of the lungs almost sterile.
But not always the body’s protective function works. Sometimes foreign agents are stronger, and invade the bronchial mucosa, destroying its cells and causing a response in it – an inflammatory process called bronchitis.
Bronchial tissues swell, its walls thicken, and accordingly, the diameter of the bronchial tube decreases. The body tries to push the infection out by increasing the secretion of mucus, and by engaging such a defense mechanism as coughing. But with inflammation, the mucus becomes more viscous, making it harder to expel.
Reducing the diameter of the bronchi and the accumulation of viscous mucus in them causes a decrease in their permeability, and thus makes it difficult for a person to breathe – this is called obstruction.
In the vast majority of cases, the causative agents are viruses and bacteria – different strains of influenza, parainfluenza, adeno- and rhino-viruses, staphylococci, streptococci, and other pathogenic microorganisms.
Allergic reactions of the body may also cause the disease. Or because of toxic substances entering the respiratory tract, destroying the bronchial mucosa.
Bronchitis in adults more often develops with tobacco use, alcoholism, working at a harmful job, chronic illnesses, and in old age.
Types of bronchitis
There are two types of bronchitis:
Acute (OB). Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchi with an acute course. It occurs once or with large temporary interruptions. Does not lead to further disorders of the structure and function of the organ.
Chronic (CB). Can develop as a complication of acute or as a result of prolonged exposure to adverse factors – smoking, recurrent infections, inhalation of dust and chemicals. The disease is recurrent, during exacerbations it is less acute. In a chronic course there is a gradual destruction of the structure of the atrial fibrillation epithelium and a decrease in its function. In severe cases, irreversible narrowing of the bronchial lumen and the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are possible.
A diagnosis of chronic bronchitis can be made if a patient has periods of cough with sputum production of at least 3 months within a year. At the same time, the observation period must be at least 2 years.
Classification according to the cause of the disease:
Viral. The most common type.
Bacterial. Can occur independently, but more often joins after viral.
Allergic. It occurs under the influence of an allergen. Characterized by a prolonged course, the development of obstruction and chronicity.
Fungal. Happens rarely.
Caused by atypical infection – chlamydia, mycoplasma.
Chemical. It infrequently causes ED, but plays a significant role in the development of CD.
Mixed type. Combines several factors in the development of the disease.
Bronchitis is also divided into obstructive – with impaired patency, and nonobstructive – with preserved patency.
The symptomatology of the disease and its course may differ depending on its type. However, a characteristic feature of all forms of the disease is cough and sputum production.
Signs of bronchitis with an acute infectious course
Acute uncomplicated disease has a stereotypical course. As a rule, it begins with inflammation of the upper respiratory tract – nasopharynx, tonsils. Therefore, acute bronchitis of an infectious nature is usually accompanied by a runny nose and sore throat. Then the inflammatory process descends lower, affecting the bronchi.
Bronchial manifestations begin with a dry cough, which over time changes to a wet (productive) cough as the patient begins to expectorate sputum.
If the disease is severe, the dry cough may be violent, persistent, and cause pain behind the sternum and between the ribs.
Greenish or yellowish sputum suggests a bacterial infection. White or clear mucus indicates no bacterial infection.
Symptoms of general intoxication – weakness, malaise, chills – are typical for OB.
The body temperature rises. It may be subfebrile, or it may rise above 38.5C. A high fever lasts for up to four days; a longer period may indicate pneumonia.
OB lasts an average of 10-14 days, but the cough may take up to several weeks after recovery, because the healing process of bronchial tissue is quite long.
The disease has periods of remission and exacerbations. During remission, the patient may not be bothered by anything, but there may be a build-up of mucous secretions. When exacerbations occur, the sputum becomes viscous and takes on a greenish or yellowish color.
The second most common sign of a chronic disease is shortness of breath.
The temperature during an exacerbation may be absent or subfebrile.
General symptoms – weakness, sweating, fatigue – develop during an exacerbation. If these symptoms occur in remission, it is more likely to indicate the development of respiratory failure (COPD).
When COPD occurs, patients have a bluish skin tone, a puffy face, and thickened end phalanges of the fingers. Even mild exertion causes them to have shortness of breath.
Treatment of bronchitis
The therapy of the disease is aimed at eliminating the focus of infection, relieving inflammation, stimulating the process of excretion of sputum, making it easier for the patient to breathe.
Also, to avoid more bronchitis, you need to dress warmer. You can help with this:
Preventive measures are, first of all, general immunity strengthening, hardening, avoiding bad habits, timely elimination of foci of infection, physical activity, summer vacations at resorts.
If it was not possible to escape the disease, it is necessary to seek medical help in time. It is important to take the course prescribed by the doctor in full, not abandoning treatment as soon as it gets better. Then the likelihood that bronchitis will pass without consequences increases significantly.